4/4. Having loaded their belongings onto wagons, the surviving people of Lachish are taken into exile - men, women, and children. They're then presented before the triumphant king, the caption above him reading "Sennacherib - king of the Universe, king of Assyria, sits on the throne as the booty of Lachish is paraded before him." The Assyrians were very keen on taking defeated people into the Assyrian heartland and assimilating them to Assyrian culture, meanwhile settling actual Assyrians in the defeated region, probably to try and destroy the group identity of the defeated people. That worked very effectively with Judah's sister nation Israel, who the Assyrians effectively engulfed a couple of decades earlier.
What's up historians! The #AkkadianEmpire was an empire of #Mesopotamia centered in the capital city of #Akkad. The empire was the first Semitic-speaking empire and united the #Akkadian and #Sumerian speakers under one rule. Under #Sargon of Akkad, the founder of the Akkadian Empire, the Empire reached its political peak . Under his reign from 2334 to 2279 BCE, he lead many military campaigns and sought out to conquer the known world of his time (the entirety of Mesopotamia). When the Akkadian Empire fell, #Sumerians believed it was due to a curse placed on them when Naram-Sin (a ruler of the Akkadian Empire) conquered the city of #Nippur and destroyed the temple. However, the fall of the Akkadian empire was due to the Gutians. The#Gutians lead a campaign of hit-and-run raids against Mesopotamia. Soon their raids crippled the Sumerian #economy and they eventually overran Akkad.
Eshnunna: c. 3000 BC–c. 1700 BC: Eshnunna (modern Tell Asmar in Diyala Province, Iraq) was an ancient Sumerian (and later Akkadian) city and city-state in central Mesopotamia. Although situated in the Diyala Valley north-east of Sumer proper, the city nonetheless belonged securely within the Sumerian cultural milieu. The tutelary deity of the city was Tishpak (Tišpak). Occupied from the Jemdet Nasr period, about 3000 BC, Eshnunna was a major city during the Early Dynastic period of Mesopotamia. Beginning with the rise of the Akkadian Empire, Eshnunna oscillated between periods of independence and domination by empires such as the Third Dynasty of Ur and Isin. Because of its promise of control over lucrative trade routes, Eshnunna could function somewhat as a gateway between Mesopotamian and Elamite culture. The trade routes gave it access to many exotic, sought-after goods such as horses from the north, copper, tin, and other metals and precious stones. In a grave in Eshnunna, a pendant made of copal from Zanzibar was found.
After rising to prominence as an independent state in the early second millennium, during the time of Shamshi-Adad, Eshnunna was then occupied by Elam, after which it was conquered by Hammurabi of Babylon in the 38th year of his reign, and thus absorbed within the Old Babylonian Empire (sometimes called the First Babylonian Dynasty). Thereafter, the city appears but rarely in cuneiform textual sources, reflecting its probable decline and eventual disappearance.
The history of the #Assyrian_Empire begins with the appearance of the #Akkadian speaking peoples in #Mesopotamia at some point between 3500 to 3000 BCE, followed by the formation of #Assyria in 25 century BC. During the early bronze age period #Sargon, cheeky lad of #Akkad United all the native Semitic-speaking #Sumeritans of Mesopotamia under the #Akkadian_Empire (2335-2154 BC). Akkadian existed as part of a unified Akkadian nation from 24th century BC until it's destruction in the mid 21st century BC.
Statue of Gudea
2100 B.C. Mesopotamia
Gudea (Sumerian 𒅗𒌣𒀀 Gu3-de2-a) was a ruler (ensi) of the state of Lagash in Southern Mesopotamia who ruled c. 2144–2124 BC. He probably did not come from the city, but had married Ninalla, daughter of the ruler Ur-Baba (2164–2144 BC) of Lagash, thus gaining entrance to the royal house of Lagash. He was succeeded by his son Ur-Ningirsu.
The history of the #Assyrian people begins with the appearance of #Akkadian speaking peoples in #Mesopotamia at some point between 3500 and 3000 BC, followed by the formation of #Assyria in the 25th century BC. During the early bronze age period Sargon, a cheeky lad of #Akkad,united all the native Semitic-speakers and the #Sumerians of Mesopotamia (including the Assyrians) under the #Akkadian Empire (2335–2154 BC). Assyria essentially existed as part of a unified Akkadian nation for much of the period from the 24th century BC to the 22nd century BC, and a nation state from the mid 21st century BC until its destruction as an independent state between 615–599 BC.
Ancient warriors: Akkadians (circa 24th century – 22nd century BC): Circa 2334 BC, the Akkadians carved up the first known all-Mesopotamian empire, thereby momentously uniting the speakers of both Sumerian and Akkadian. In fact, by the middle of 3rd millennium BC, the Akkadians managed to create a culturally syncretic scope (that encompassed a melting pot of different ethnicity and city-states), which ultimately paved the way for the emergence of Akkadian as the lingua franca of Mesopotamia for many centuries to come. However, beyond just cultural affiliations with the advanced Sumerians, the Akkadians also adopted (and loaned) many of the military systems and doctrines of their Mesopotamian brethren.
One example of such ‘transmission’ of military ideas relates to how the Akkadians probably fought in a phalanx-like formation long before the Greeks (as did the soldiers of the Sumerian city-state of Lagash). This tactic in itself alludes to how the soldiers of Akkad must have been disciplined and trained, thus hinting at their professional status, as opposed to most ancient armies. A few steles also showcase how the Akkadians (and their preceding Sumerians) made use of the armored cloak – a panoply that probably consisted of a leather skin (or cloth) reinforced with metal discs; and helmets for further protection in brutal melee combats. But the practical superiority of the Akkadian (and Sumerian) warrior culture must have related to the use of wheels – an invention that not only allowed for more complex logistical support but also heralded the development of chariots, the ponderous heavy shock weapons of the Bronze Age. Moreover, Sargon of Akkad, possibly the first known military dictator of an empire, implemented the use of composite bows in his otherwise lightly-armed citizen army. Historically, the effective range and punch of such powerful bows (in the hands of skilled archers) surely must have given the Akkadians the military advantage over their Sumerian neighbors – many of whom still relied on javelins.